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Mine development - access to deposit

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dc.contributor.author Rupprecht, S.M.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-12T18:35:20Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-12T18:35:20Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.citation Rupprecht, S.M. 2011. Mine development - access to deposit. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Platinum 2012, 101-122. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8182
dc.description.abstract A deposit to be mined by underground methods can be accessed by a number of methods: • Adit • Decline or ramp • Inclined shaft • Vertical shaft. Adits are an economical approach when the orebody is above the general floor elevation i.e. suitable in hilly or mountainous terrain. Incline shafts are limited to relatively shallow deposits, and because they are developed on an incline, development lengths for a given depth are the three to five times longer than for a vertical shaft. Vertical shafts are the preferred method for deposits deeper than 300 m but the development rate is slow and construction costs are very high. Declines or ramps offer early access to shallow deposits, which develops the ore body expediently, but are generally developed at a gradient of approximately 12 per cent. Decline haulages have become an attractive alternative to shaft hoisting, and over recent years the role of decline access has become more widespread throughout South Africa. Traditionally, South Africa has enjoyed the use of shaft systems, largely due to the large knowledge base of mining the Witwatersrand Basin, where vertical and inclined shafts were the norm. South Africa has also had the advantage of cheap electricity, giving shafts a definite economic advantage. However, in recent years the national power utility ESKOM has undergone an expansion programme that has led to tariff increases of nearly 100% over a three-year period. Based on the changes in electricity tariffs and technological improvements to underground haulage trucks, the economic inputs to access development have changed. This paper reviews mine access for shallow deposits as currently applied in South Africa. Based on current economic inputs, the paper investigates at what point a vertical shaft would be more economical than a decline system utilizing typical South African mining equipment. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy en_US
dc.rights © Rupprecht, 2011. Available at: http://www.saimm.co.za/publications/conference-papers en_US
dc.subject Decline shaft systems en_US
dc.subject Vertical shafts en_US
dc.subject Mine access en_US
dc.title Mine development - access to deposit en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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