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An investigation in South African domesticated animals, their products and related health issues with reference to mycotoxins and fungi

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dc.contributor.author Mwanza, Mulunda
dc.date.accessioned 2008-08-18T07:39:37Z
dc.date.available 2008-08-18T07:39:37Z
dc.date.issued 2008-08-18T07:39:37Z
dc.date.submitted August 2007
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/884
dc.description.abstract Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, which may contaminate animal feed and human food at all stages of the food chain. This has become a global concern and considered an important risk factor mostly for human and animal health. The aim of this project was to elucidate the general health and productivity of domesticated animals in selected rural areas of the Limpopo Province in relation to fungi and mycotoxin and find out possible solutions to avoid in the future further exposure and to improve animal production in rural areas. A total of 95 animal fresh faeces (50 from Mapate and 45 from Nwanedi districts), 50 feed samples (24 from Mapate and 26 from Nwanedi) and 50 fresh milk samples from cattle and goats were screened for fungi and mycotoxin contamination. The multi mycotoxin extraction method was used, followed by thin layer chromatography, also the VICAM immunoaffinity clean up, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry and the ELIZA enzyme linked kit method were used for further mycotoxin determination and quantification. The results obtained from this study revealed that species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium fungi contaminated both feed and animal faeces samples. The species Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminerium and F. proliferatum were the most prevalent fungi. Fumonisin B1 and B2, aflatoxins B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in animal feed. Fumonisins B1 and B2 were also found in faecal samples which indicated animal exposure to these mycotoxins. Cattle were the most exposed as compared to goats and pigs. In addition, aflatoxin M1 and traces of fumonisin B1 was detected in cattle and goats milk samples collected from both Mapate and Nwanedi districts. Late harvesting and poor handling of crops during storage seemed to be the reason for the results indicating feed contamination with high levels of fungi and mycotoxins. Daily exposure to this contaminants may influence or/and induce several symptoms such as dermatosis, immunosupression, liver and oesophageal cancer in both animal and human being. There is an urgent necessity to teach rural populations simple and cheap methods of crops storage and techniques to prevent feed and food contamination. en
dc.description.sponsorship Prof. Mike F. Dutton Mr. F. Eric Van-Zyl en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Mycotoxins en
dc.subject Mycotoxicoses en
dc.subject Fungi en
dc.subject Food contamination en
dc.title An investigation in South African domesticated animals, their products and related health issues with reference to mycotoxins and fungi en
dc.type Thesis en

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