Developing a holistic work-wellness model.

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dc.contributor.author Els, Diederick Arnoldus
dc.date.accessioned 2007-10-22T11:56:28Z
dc.date.available 2007-10-22T11:56:28Z
dc.date.issued 2007-10-22T11:56:28Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/103
dc.description.abstract Research applications in the field of positive organisational behaviour are developing as part of the paradigm of fortology. Both psychofortology and positive psychology support the development of the strengths (fortology) of human behaviour. Health and wellness research in working contexts build theory in the field of Industrial Psychology. The objective of the present research is to develop and test a holistic work-wellness model for employees of a life insurance organisation in South Africa. Holistic work-wellness research requires that wellness, organisational factors and individual dispositions be treated as part of an integrated and dynamic system. The relationship between these constructs provides some understanding of total work wellness. A cross-sectional survey designed was used with a sample of 673 participants. The 5 Factor Wellness Survey, the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Job Diagnostics Survey were administered. The empirical research results have shown that a positive relationship exists between motivational job characteristics, sense of coherence, engagement and wellness. A somewhat negative relationship exists between burnout and wellness in the holistic work-wellness model. The structural equation modelling statistics provided reasonable goodness of fit indices with some room for modification. According tot the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation criterion, the results support the acceptance of the holistic work-wellness model. A path diagram, in which cause and effect arrows flow from the exclusive latent variable back to the primary factors, was developed. The development of this holistic work-wellness model addresses the research problem and builds theory with which to holistically understand work wellness. It can be concluded that the development of this particular model can be used in the insurance organisation to implement employee health and wellness care. The Indivisible Self: An Evidence-Based Model of Wellness that consists out of 17 wellness and 4 contextual factors were successfully applied as a clinical wellness model in an organisational context (Myers and Sweeney, 2005). A principle factor analysis confirmed the factor structure of previous wellness research for the first time in a South African study. Structural equation modelling statistics on the wellness model confirmed the 19-factor model with adequate goodness of fit indices. The empirical research data confirms The Indivisible Self: An Evidence-Based Model of Wellness for the insurance organisation. This wellness model can therefore be used as an independent wellness model to explain wellness from the theory and from the present empirical study. From the literature it is clear that research on wellness in relation to motivational job characteristics are developing as a research topic. The empirical research in the present study confirmed that a positive relationship exist between these two phenomena. Goodness of fit indices confirm that the six-factor motivational job characteristics model cannot be used as an independent model in the insurance organisation. Subsequently this did not validate the practically significant positive relationships in the independent job model. However these findings were still useful in an explorative study that focused on the development of a holistic work-wellness model. A strong sense of coherence can therefore be hypothesised to help employees to face stressful situations and to handle complex tasks because demands from the environment are understood and believed to be under their personal or significant others’ control. They are likely to regard the tasks as challenging enough to spend energy on. It can be described as the characteristic inherent to individuals, which assists them in their interaction with their work-environment and situations that might arise as a consequence thereof. Empirical statistical results indicated that the three factors meaning, comprehension and manageability are confirmed for the sense of coherence construct. A principle factor analysis confirmed reliable Cronbach alphas for meaning and comprehension in the present research. Structural equation modelling proves that the sense of coherence model cannot be used independently due to poor goodness of fit statistics. However, sense of coherence is still useful in the development of a holistic work-wellness model. The research results also showed that engagement could be considered a positive indicator of employee wellness. Findings validated and confirmed the factorial validity of vigour and dedication. Goodness of fit statistics produced goodness of fit indices of intermediate quality. Empirical statistics verified and validated burnout as a four-factor model. Researched statistics showed internally consistent results for the four-burnout subscales (exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy and cognitive weariness). It can be concluded that these factors are reliable and valid factors. Results from the structural equation modelling proposed good fit (RMSEA) for the four-factor burnout model, with some modification required to improve the other indicators. Conclusions and recommendations in terms of the implementation of managed health and wellness care for employees in the insurance organisation are based on the development of the holistic work-wellness model. Health and wellness programmes should be researched to develop the empirical application of the holistic work-wellness model. en
dc.description.sponsorship Prof. R.P. De la Rey en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject employee assistance programs en
dc.subject employee health promotion en
dc.title Developing a holistic work-wellness model. en
dc.type Thesis en

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