The origin of the Kheis Terrane and its relationship with the Archean Kaapvaal Craton and the Grenvillian Namaqua province in Southern Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. N.J. Beukes Prof. C.A. Smit en
dc.contributor.author Van Niekerk, Hermanus Stephanus
dc.date.accessioned 2009-01-29T12:08:52Z
dc.date.available 2009-01-29T12:08:52Z
dc.date.issued 2009-01-29T12:08:52Z
dc.date.submitted 2006-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1974
dc.description D.Phil. en
dc.description.abstract The tectonic history of the Kheis Terrane and its relationship with the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province (NNMP) along the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton were the focus of this study. Major issues addressed in this study are the origin and timing of formation of the Kheis Terrane and the recognition and definition of terrane boundaries in the area. Results of detailed measured sections across the Kheis Terrane, heavy mineral provenance studies, 40Ar/39Ar analyses of metamorphic muscovite, U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon grains from 12 samples from the Kheis- and Kakamas Terranes and one igneous body from the Kakamas Terrane are presented. A new stratigraphic unit, the Keis Supergroup, comprising the Olifantshoek-, Groblershoop- and Wilgenhoutsdrif Groups, is defined. The base of the Keis Supergroup is taken at the basal conglomerate of the Neylan Formation. The Mapedi- and Lucknow Formations, previously considered part of the Olifantshoek Group, are now incorporated into the underlying Transvaal Supergroup. The Dabep Fault was found not to represent a terrane boundary. Rather, the Blackridge Thrust represents the boundary between the rocks of the Kheis Terrane and the Kaapvaal Craton. Provenance studies indicate that the rocks of the Keis Supergroup were deposited along a passive continental margin on the western side of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton with the detritus derived from a cratonic interior. Detrital zircon grains from the rocks of the Keis Supergroup of the Kheis Terrane all gave similar detrital zircon age populations of ~1800Ma to ~2300Ma and ~2500Ma to ~2700Ma. The Kaapvaal Craton most probably never acted as a major source area for the rocks of the Keis Supergroup because of the lack of Paleo- to Mesoarchean zircon populations in the Keis Supergroup. Most of the detrital zircon grains incorporated into the Keis Supergroup were derived from the Magondi- and Limpopo Belts and the Zimbabwe Craton to the northeast of the Keis basin. The rock of the Kakamas Terrane was derived from a totally different source area with ages of ~1100Ma to ~1500Ma and ~1700Ma to ~1900Ma which were derived from the Richtersveld- and Bushmanland Terranes as well as the ~1166Ma old granitic gneisses ofthe Kakamas Terrane. Therefore the rocks of the Kheis- and Kakamas Terranes were separated from each other during their deposition. Detrital zircon populations from the Sprigg Formation indicate that it this unit was deposited after the amalgamation of the Kheis- and Kakamas Terranes and therefore does not belong to the Areachap Group. Results provide clear evidence for a tectonic model characterised by the presence of at least two Wilson cycles that affeected the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in the interval between the extrusion of the Hartley lavas at 1.93Ga and the collision with the Richtersveld tectonic domain at ~1.13Ga. According to the revised plate tectonic model for the western margin of the Kaapvaal- Zimbabwe Craton, the Neylan Formation represents the initiation of the first Wilson Cycle, with rifting at ~1927Ma ago, on the western margin of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the Olifantshoek Group were deposited in a braided river environment which gradually changed into a shallow marine environment towards the top of the Olifantshoek Group in the Top Dog Formation. The metasedimentary rocks of the Groblershoop Group were deposited in a shallow, passive or trailing continental margin on the western side of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton. The rocks of the Wilgenhoutsdrif Group overlie the Groblershoop Group unconformably. This unconformity is related to crustal warping as a volcanic arc, represented by the metavolcanics of the Areachap Group, approached the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton from the west. The rocks of the Keis Supergroup were deformed into the Kheis Terrane during the collision of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton, Areachap Arc and the Kgalagadi Terrane to form the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe-Kgalagadi Craton. This event took place sometime between 1290Ma, the age of deformed granites in the Kheis Terrane and 1172Ma, the initiation of rifting represented by the Koras Group. This is supported by 40Ar/39Ar analyses of metamorphic muscovite from the Kheis Terrane that did not provide any evidence for a ~1.8Ga old Kheis orogeny (an age commonly suggested in the past for this orogeny). This collisional event resulted in the deformation of the rocks of the Keis Supergroup into the Kheis Terrane sometime between 1290Ma and 1172Ma.The second Wilson cycle was initiated during rifting along the Koras-Sinclair-Ghanzi rift on the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe-Kgalagadi Craton at ~1172Ma. It was followed soon after by the initiation of subduction underneath the Richtersveld cratonic fragment at ~1166Ma after which the rocks of the Korannaland Group were deposited. The closure of the oceanic basin between the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe-Kgalagadi Craton and the Richtersveld cratonic fragment occurred about 50Ma later (~1113Ma, the age of neomorphic muscovite in the metasedimentary rocks of the Kakamas Terrane) and resulted in the large open folds characterising the Kheis terrane and NNMP. Detrital zircon populations in the Sprigg Formation show that this formation does not belong to the Areachap Group and that it was deposited after the closure of the oceanic basin between the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe-Kgalagadi Craton and the Richtersveld cratonic fragment at ~1113Ma. The Areachap Group can be extended towards the north and into Botswana along the Kalahari line where it forms the boundary between the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton to its east and the Kgalagadi Terrane to its west. The Areachap Terrane is thus related to the collision of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Kgalagadi Terrane and was deformed a second time during the oblique collision of the Richtersveld cratonic fragment with the combined Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe-Kgalagadi Craton. The extension of the Areachap Group to the north along the Kalahari line opens up new exploration prospects for Coppertontype massive sulphide deposits underneath the Kalahari sand. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Groups (Stratigraphy) en
dc.subject Sedimentary rocks en
dc.subject Structural geology en
dc.subject Plate tectonics en
dc.subject Namaqualand (South Africa) en
dc.title The origin of the Kheis Terrane and its relationship with the Archean Kaapvaal Craton and the Grenvillian Namaqua province in Southern Africa en
dc.type Thesis en

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