Release of volatile compounds by Arabidopsis thaliana cells in response to elicitation by lipopolysaccharides

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. I.A. Dubery en
dc.contributor.author Le Noury, Denise Anne
dc.date.accessioned 2011-08-31T07:15:12Z
dc.date.available 2011-08-31T07:15:12Z
dc.date.issued 2011-08-31T07:15:12Z
dc.date.submitted 2010-10
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3788
dc.description M.Sc. en
dc.description.abstract Plants produce volatile organic compounds in response to certain elicitors and environments. These compounds have a variety of functions, including the attraction of insects for pollination and seed dispersal, responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses and the priming or sensitizing of neighbouring plants for subsequent attack. The majority of the volatile blend is made up of terpenoid compounds and these compounds are formed through the action of an important class of enzymes termed Terpene Synthases. Lipopolysaccharides form part of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and they are classed as “pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules” and are thought to induce defence responses in plants by influencing different metabolic pathways that could ultimately result in the production of defence volatiles. LPS from Burkholderia cepacia that has been reported to induce the oxidative burst, the nitric oxide burst and changes in cytosolic calcium concentrations, was used in this study. In order to analyse the volatiles, Single-Drop Microextraction and Solid-Phase Microextraction were used as static headspace sampling techniques that allow the preconcentration of volatile analytes prior to analysis. Both these techniques are fast, simple and equilibrium based and both allow for minimal sample size and preparation. Luminometry was performed in order to test the efficacy of LPS and to determine if LPS is able to induce the oxidative burst in Arabidopsis thaliana. Histochemical staining of transgenic plants containing the PR1:GUS and PDF:GUS reporter gene constructs was performed in order to determine which signalling pathway LPS follows, either the jasmonic acid pathway or the salicylic acid pathway. SPME was then used to extract samples from both time and concentration studies. The time studies involved incubation times of 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h and 0 d, 1 d, 2 d and 3 d respectively, while the concentration studies involved using LPS concentrations of 0, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. SPME was also used for the comparision of two A. thaliana ecotypes (Columbia and C24) as well as two A. thaliana knock-out lines (At5g44630 – multi-product sesquiterpene synthase and At5g23960 – (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase), and finally it was used for the sampling of A. thaliana leaf tissue. SDME was used to compare two solvents, namely octane and toluene and these results were compared to the SPME results. GC-MS was used only for the identification of volatiles with both SPME and SDME. Finally, GC-MS was used with SPME to identify volatiles that are produced by leaf tissue after priming. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Arabidopsis thaliana en
dc.subject Plant gene expression
dc.subject Plant defenses
dc.subject Plant-pathogen relationships
dc.subject Endotoxins
dc.subject Lipopolysaccharides
dc.title Release of volatile compounds by Arabidopsis thaliana cells in response to elicitation by lipopolysaccharides en
dc.type Thesis en

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