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Optimization of quaternary and pentenary chalcopyrite for applications in thin film solar cells

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. V. Alberts en_US
dc.contributor.author Chenene, Manuel Luis
dc.date.accessioned 2011-11-08T06:37:35Z
dc.date.available 2011-11-08T06:37:35Z
dc.date.issued 2011-11-08
dc.date.submitted 2010-04
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3938
dc.description Ph.D. en_US
dc.description.abstract One of the solutions to the high cost of solar modules is the development of thin film solar cell technologies, which enable material saving, few processing steps, good stability in outdoor testing, high conversion efficiency and flexibility for large area coatings. Polycrystalline CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films and related quaternary and pentenary compounds such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGSS) are the most promising thin film candidates to fulfil the requirements of economically viable solar modules. Presently CIS, CIGS and CIGSS thin film solar cells are prepared mostly by two – stage deposition processes, where Cu-In-Ga alloys are deposited, followed by selenization and/or sulfurization using H2Se/Ar and/or H2S/Ar gases, Se and/or S vapours. Key problems related to this approach are (1) the widely reported compositional change and loss of material during the annealing and selenization stages, and (2) the formation of a graded film structure with most of the Ga residing at the back of the film, due to the difference in the reaction rates between the binary selenides. The present study aims to develop CIGS quaternary and CIGSS pentenary thin film absorbers which are substantially homogeneous and single phase. In order to achieve this aim different deposition processes were developed. This included thermal evaporation of pulverized compound materials from a single crucible with and without subsequent reaction of the precursors in Se vapour or H2Se/Ar atmosphere. Alternatively, controlled partial selenization/sulfurization of the Cu-In-Ga magnetron sputtered precursor films under controlled conditions of reaction time, temperature and gas phase concentration were applied to produce CIGSS films. The latter approach allowed homogeneous incorporation of Ga and S species into CIS compound material, and with that a corresponding increase of band gap of the material in the active region of the solar cell. CIGS quaternary and CIGSS pentenary based solar cells were completed by depositing a CdS buffer layer of around 50 nm thickness, high resistivity ZnO and low resistivity Al – doped ZnO with thicknesses of about 50 nm and 0.5 μm respectively. I-V measurements on fabricated solar cells, under standard A.M. 1.5 conditions, demonstrated good solar cell device quality with efficiencies of about 10 % and 15% respectively. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Thin films en_US
dc.subject Solar cells en_US
dc.subject Photovoltaic cells en_US
dc.subject Chalcopyrite en_US
dc.title Optimization of quaternary and pentenary chalcopyrite for applications in thin film solar cells en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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