The effects of light and dark conditions on refractive behavior

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. W.F. Harris en_US
dc.contributor.author Gillan, Wayne Donald Herbert
dc.date.accessioned 2011-12-07T08:14:08Z
dc.date.available 2011-12-07T08:14:08Z
dc.date.issued 2011-12-07
dc.date.submitted 2004
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4219
dc.description D.Phil. en_US
dc.description.abstract Under certain conditions the human visual system accommodates and postures at a position classically known as the dark focus. The dark focus is usually presented as a spherical phenomenon. The characteristics of the dark focus that can be conveyed by its spherical presentation are limiting: little representation can be given of the characteristics of the variation that occurs when measurements are taken of the dark focus (for example under dark conditions); no indication can be given of any antistigmatic (non-spherical) change or variation; differences in variation between light and dark conditions cannot be shown or detected using classical methods of analysis; meridional characteristics of the dark focus cannot be represented, and so on. In this thesis I have preferred to coin and use the term dark refraction shift (defined here as: 8F = F dark- Flight) for what has classically been known as the dark focus. I have done so because I believe that the term is a better description of what happens to the human visual system under dark conditions. Multivariate methods of analysis allow for a much more detailed, and complete, presentation ofthe dark refraction shift and its variation. The limitations of methods used previously and mentioned above are overcome when multivariate methods are used to analyze and present dark refraction shift data. This thesis presents the dark refraction shift and its various characteristics, making use of multivariate methods that are used for this purpose for the first time. A Hoya AR550 autorefractor, set to measure refractive state to the nearest 0.01 D, was used to take 50 measurements at a time of the refractive state of twenty subjects under varying conditions ofluminance. The autorefractor was re-focused after each measurement. In the light condition, the subject was positioned in front of the autorefractor, the room lights were left switched on and the fixation target inside the instrument was visible to the subject. 50 measurements were then taken under these conditions. A second set of measurements was then taken under the dark condition. In the dark condition measurements the subject was left in complete darkness for five minutes to allow the accommodative system to settle at the dark focus. No fixation target was visible to the subject who remained in complete darkness for the duration of the dark condition measurements. 50 autorefractor measurements were taken under these conditions. Two measurement sessions were conducted where the order of the light and dark conditions were reversed. In the case of each subject the order of light versus dark condition measurements was determined randomly for the initial session and reversed in the second session. Subjects had to fulfill certain selection criteria; the refractive state had to have a cylinder equivalent dioptric strength of less than or equal to 6 D, the visual acuity had to be 6/6 or better in the right eye, subjects with strabismus were eliminated and subjects with any observable ocular pathology were not accepted. Ten of the subjects were aged between 21 and 35 years of age. They constituted the prepresbyopic group. The other ten subjects were aged between 40 and 65 years of age and constituted the presbyopic group. Each subject had a total of 200 measurements taken, 100 measurements taken in the light condition and 1 00 taken in the dark condition. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Eye accommodation and refraction en_US
dc.title The effects of light and dark conditions on refractive behavior en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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