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A conceptual end-use model for residential water demand and return flow.

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dc.contributor.author Jacobs, Heinz Erasmus
dc.date.accessioned 2008-05-27T13:19:42Z
dc.date.available 2008-05-27T13:19:42Z
dc.date.issued 2008-05-27T13:19:42Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/468
dc.description.abstract A conceptual end use model for residential water demand and return flow is presented in this thesis. The model requires a unique description of a single residential stand in terms of all its end-uses. The end-uses include toilet flushing, bathing and showering, garden watering, leaks, et cetera. Various parameters describe each of the end-uses. The model predicts five components relating to water demand and wastewater flow at a residence: indoor water demand, outdoor water demand, hot water demand, wastewater flow volume and concentration of solutes in the wastewater. Twelve monthly results are calculated, for each of the five components, to provide a typical seasonal pattern as well as an annual value. The large number of input parameters in an end-use model allows for powerful and detailed analysis. The parameters required to populate the model are discussed and guideline values are presented. The end-use model is used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of each independent parameter for each of the five individual model components. The elasticity and sensitivity is determined at a base point with respect to each parameter for all five results. A research significance index is also devised to integrate the elasticity and availability of data for each parameter. The result is a prioritised list of the most critical parameters for each of the five components, which are the ones that should receive the focus for future study and data recording. The parameters are combined to obtain a list of the overall most important parameters in the model for all components combined, and based on a combination of the elasticity-based rank and the sensitivity based rank. The five most important parameters are the household size, toilet flush frequency, toilet flush volume, the washing machine event frequency and the volume of leaks on a stand. The practical application of the model is illustrated. The researchers first apply the model to mimic a few commonly accepted characteristics of water demand. The effectiveness of some specific water demand management measures are evaluated by adjusting selected model parameters. The measures include xeriscaping, the installation of dual-flush toilets, low-flow showerheads, pool ownership and pool cover use. The model also enables practitioners to obtain an insight into the water use habits of homeowners. The model forms the basis for further research work in the field. Its relatively simple structure and realistic data requirement encourages its integration into existing commercially available software suites for water and sewer system analysis and -management in the civil engineering industry in South Africa, as well as abroad. en
dc.description.sponsorship Prof. J. Haarhoff en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject water consumption en
dc.subject water consumption management en
dc.subject municipal water supply en
dc.subject water salinization en
dc.subject sewage en
dc.subject hot water supply en
dc.title A conceptual end-use model for residential water demand and return flow. en
dc.type Thesis en

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