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The effects of copper and effluent on certain life stages of Xenopus laevis and Tilapia sparrmanii

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. J. H. Swanepoel en_US
dc.contributor.author Hill, Candace Cheryl
dc.date.accessioned 2012-08-13T07:22:09Z
dc.date.available 2012-08-13T07:22:09Z
dc.date.issued 2012-08-13
dc.date.submitted 1999-08
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5485
dc.description M.Sc. en_US
dc.description.abstract The increase in industrialisation, mining and agricultural activity along rivers could have a detrimental effect on aquatic environments unless the dangers of pollutants are not taken notice of. Metal ions and industrial effluent have become a source of pollution in the watercourses of South Africa. Pollutants generally have negative effects on the physiology of aquatic biota in polluted waters. The effects of copper and industrial effluent by the exposure of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis and Tilapia sparrmanii are presented in this study. An experimental static-renewal system with an exposure time of 96 hours was followed at 25±1°C. After copper and effluent exposure, several physiological changes occurred in the two aquatic organisms. The sublethal effects that occurred include changes in hatching, survival, behaviour, growth impairment and developmental limitations. The results of the present study suggest that lethal endpoints can be used as indicators in detecting and evaluating the effects of aquatic pollution, caused by copper and effluent. Individual variation, however, could hamper the conclusions made but the study of aquatic organisms is of practical importance when conducting experimental studies in a laboratory and does not have the same impact as during field studies. Apart from the exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper and effluent, computational derivations of LC50, NOEC values and 95% confidence limits were made. The obtained concentrations were used as assumptions that pollutants should not exceed for the protection of aquatic life. Statistically different differences were found between the chosen derived variables of control and experimental organisms. The advantages of FETAX solution over borehole water can be attributed to the bioavailability of pollutants, which appears to be much less in those solutions. The predicted NOEC values provide some information regarding the concentrations at which no effects will be observed and the Target Water Quality Ranges (TWGR) for water were used to determine if the diluent was correct. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Xenopus laevis - Effect of metals on en_US
dc.subject Aquatic organisms - Effect of water pollution en_US
dc.subject Tilapia - Effect of metals on en_US
dc.subject Tilapia sparrmanii - Effect of metals on en_US
dc.subject Heavy metals - Environmental aspects en_US
dc.subject Fishes - Effect of water pollution on en_US
dc.title The effects of copper and effluent on certain life stages of Xenopus laevis and Tilapia sparrmanii en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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