DDRT-PCR analysis of Lipopolysaccharide induced gene expression in tobacco cells

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. I.A. Dubery. en_US
dc.contributor.author Sanabria, Natasha Mary-Anne.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-08-14T12:07:28Z
dc.date.available 2012-08-14T12:07:28Z
dc.date.issued 2012-08-14
dc.date.submitted 2003-05-12
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5705
dc.description M.Sc. en_US
dc.description.abstract LPS, as a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) molecule can interact with eukaryotic host cells. Interaction occurs by either direct contact or due to the release of micelles containing LPS from bacterial cell surfaces. LPS activates innate host defence systems in both invertebrate and vertebrate animal/insect cells via analogous pathways, where the lipid A component,is responsible for the activities. LPS from several plant pathogens have been shown to activate a number of defence-related responses in plants. Initial concentration studies and cell viability assays were conducted to assess isonitrosoacetophenone (INAP) and LPS as elicitors of defensive responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) cell suspensions. The effective concentrations were found to be 100vM INAP and 100μg/ml LPS. RNA was isolated, quantified and analysed to confirm the quality of the starting material for differential display analysis. The DDRT-PCR technique was successfully applied in order to obtain comparative "displays" of PCR amplicons derived from three sub-divided mRNA pools (i.e. each of the three different anchor primers, per treatment). Significant differences in the profiles of control, INAP and LPS treated cells were observed, indicating that the eliciting agents had prominent effects on cellular homeostasis, resulting in an altered gene expression profile. DDRT-PCR can be technically challenging at a number of steps. Modifications were incorporated to initially obtain differentially expressed transcripts (DETs), as well as reamplify the DETs. 223 Putative DETs were isolated from denaturing polyacrylamide sequencing gels. 172 Putative DETs were re-amplified, of which 126 appeared as good candidates for further analysis. Finally, 96 putative DETs were chosen for reverse Northern analysis. DDRT-PCR has been reported to be plagued by false positives. Reverse Northern analysis confirms the presence of the putative DET from the subdivided RNA pool, as well as affirming the differential expression, compared between the control and inducer blots. 26 DETs were selected for cloning, of which 16 were sequenced. Homologies between the DETs and known sequences were determined using BLASTN and BLASTX alignments, DNAssist software, as well as MIPS alignments to the Arabidopsis genome. Five of the DETs were assigned putative functions in plant signal perception, transduction and the defence response, based on their respective sequence homologies to sequences involved in innate immunity. It is proposed that the DET, HAP3-15, represents the plant equivalent of a component of the innate immunity pathway in mammals and Drosophila. It is further proposed that HAP3-15 represents a S-Receptor kinase protein (SRK), with a defensive role in distinguishing self from potential pathogens. Therefore, as a SRK, HAP3-15 would function as a transmembrane receptor able to conduct an external signal through the membrane to the cytoplasm as a form of signal perception. Subsequently HAP3-15 could ii play a role in phosphorylation cascades through the kinase domain and, consequently, be responsible for signal transduction. In addition, LPS would then represent the ligand creating the signal perceived by the SRK, HAP3-15, with oligosaccharide binding ability. HAP3-15 was also identified as a true positive by the INAP probe in reverse Northerns, implying that both the biological and chemical inducers used, activated the same receptor kinase. Whether the same signalling pathway was followed during the phosphorylation cascades has not been determined. Further analysis will require Northern blots in a time study to investigate the kinetics of induction. In addition, longer sequence information for each of the five DETs needs to be obtained to identify the corresponding genes in order to investigate their roles in innate immunity in plants. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Gene expression. en_US
dc.subject Polymerase chain reaction en_US
dc.subject Endotoxins. en_US
dc.subject Plant defenses. en_US
dc.subject Plants - Disease and pest resistance en_US
dc.title DDRT-PCR analysis of Lipopolysaccharide induced gene expression in tobacco cells en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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