Statistical properties of sequential detonation systems

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. F. Lombard en_US
dc.contributor.author Winter, Theodor Daniël
dc.date.accessioned 2012-08-24T06:16:18Z
dc.date.available 2012-08-24T06:16:18Z
dc.date.issued 2012-08-24
dc.date.submitted 1996
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6558
dc.description M.Sc. en_US
dc.description.abstract At the very roots of this dissertation lies a commercial process with many as yet unexplored characteristics that will be thoroughly examined, using a rich variety of statistical methods and techniques. Broadly speaking, the main objective of this study involves the development of techniques to control the quality of advanced explosives detonators used in commercial mining operations. To accomplish this task, various statistical characteristics of this detonation process are described and examined in order to obtain a holistic understanding of the underlying process. The parameters of the process are introduced and estimates for unknowns are derived. Real-time quality control techniques based on these results are suggested. 1.2. The role of blasting in mining A major part of South Africa's economy is based on the mining of the rich mineral deposits that are to be found in the country. These mining operations are carried out both above ground (open-pit iron ore mines, for example) and below ground (gold, uranium and others). Open-pit mining, in particular, requires significant amounts of commercial blasting to dislodge the high volumes of material that have to be moved and processed. An average blasting block at Iscor's Sishen mine, for example, contains about 250 000 tons of material, although a world record was established in April 1981 when 7, 2 million tons of rock was broken during a single blast. The chemical quality of the final products is partly controlled by supplying the primary crusher at the mine with a suitable mixture of so-called run-of-mine ore. To determine which material from a specific blasting block may be sent to the plant, and to which waste dump the remaining material should be assigned, factors such as beneficiation properties of the raw material and the content of various by-products are considered. Samples are typically taken from alternate blast holes for every metre drilled. Each drill sample is divided into two parts by means of a riffler for a washed and unwashed sample. The washed samples are examined and the rock types noted. Subsequently, all the samples are grouped and analysed chemically and the densities of the different rock types are determined. The results are processed and those for the washed and unwashed samples correlated. The blasting blocks in the pit are demarcated by means of whitewash lines, according to the divisions on the blasting-block plans, and they are marked with signs to guide shovel operators. Primary drilling is performed by means of electrically-driven rotary drills. At the Sishen mine, 310 mm diameter blast holes are drilled in all rock types. The following table depicts typical drilling 2 patterns for various rock types: Rock type Pattern (m) Drill depth (m) Hard iron ore 2 x 8, 3 3, 0 Medium-hard iron ore 1 x 9, 3 2, 7 Quartzite 8,2 x 9,4 2, 5 Flagstone 8,2 x 9,4 5 Calcrete 8,1 x 9,3 0 Primary blasting is done at Sishen with Heavy Anfo, an explosive that is manufactured by mine personnel at the emulsion plant on site. The ingredients for the explosive blends are transported by pump trucks to the blasting blocks, where it is mixed and pumped down the blast holes. Good fragmentation of the blasted material is a prerequisite for high loading rates by the loading equipment. At Sishen and other similar mines, a blasting efficiency of 3, 2 tons of rock per kilogram of explosives used, is considered to be acceptable. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Blasting en_US
dc.subject Detonators en_US
dc.subject Mining engineering en_US
dc.subject Explosives en_US
dc.subject Statistical mechanics -- Mathematical models en_US
dc.title Statistical properties of sequential detonation systems en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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