Bifunctional phosphines : synthesis and evaluation in catalysis

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. D.B.G. Williams en_US
dc.contributor.author Shaw, Megan Lorraine
dc.date.accessioned 2012-09-10T08:28:31Z
dc.date.available 2012-09-10T08:28:31Z
dc.date.issued 2012-09-10
dc.date.submitted 2005
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7261
dc.description M.Sc. en_US
dc.description.abstract This study focused on the synthesis and evaluation of phosphine ligands with multiple functional ities. Polar ligands suitable for use in homogeneous catalysis in aqueous/organic systems were synthesised, as were ligands incorporating a boron atom in an intramolecular Lewis acid-Lewis base interaction with the phosphorus atom. A malonate moiety was readily incorporated into a phosphorus starting material, and derivatives were obtained by reduction of the ester groups. The polar diol products were reacted with 1,4-butanesultone which made them water soluble and thus ideal for biphasic catalysis. Wittig chemistry was employed to introduce alkenes of varying electronic nature into a phosphorus-containing aldehyde starting material. The catalysed hydroboration reaction making use of diboron reagents was used to introduce a boron functionality into the resulting a, n-unsaturated ester phosphine I igands. All of the ligands produced were tested in transition metal-catalysed reactions, namely the Heck reaction, the Suzuki reaction, the Stille reaction, the carboxymethylation reaction and the hydroformylation reaction. The polar and water soluble ligands all showed comparable or improved yields to the standard benchmark triphenylphosphine ligand in organic, biphasic and ionic liquid media. The electronic nature of the alkene ligands largely dictated the activities observed in the Heck, Suzuki and Stille reactions. The electron rich ligands showed improved activities in the Heck reaction, while the electron poor ligands showed improved activities in the Suzuki reaction. In contrast, the Stille reaction seemed to be more affected by the steric demands of the ligands rather than by electronic considerations. It was also found that the boron containing ligands showed an enhanced activity in comparison to the boron free unsaturated and saturated ester ligands. This enhancement was directly ascribable to the Lewis acidic boron atom. This study allowed the synthesis of a range of functionally varying phosphine ligands which where shown to influence transition metal-catalysed reactions based specifically on the functionality present. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Phosphorus compounds - Synthesis en_US
dc.subject Catalysis en_US
dc.subject Ligands en_US
dc.subject Transition metal catalysts en_US
dc.title Bifunctional phosphines : synthesis and evaluation in catalysis en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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