Mafic, ultramafic and anorthositic rocks of the Tete complex, Mozambique : petrology, age and significance

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. L.D. Ashwal en_US
dc.contributor.author Evans, Richard John
dc.date.accessioned 2012-09-11T10:16:18Z
dc.date.available 2012-09-11T10:16:18Z
dc.date.issued 2012-09-11
dc.date.submitted 1998
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7460
dc.description M.Sc. en_US
dc.description.abstract The ca. 800 km2 Tete Complex of NW Mozambique is located at the eastern end of the 830 ±30 Ma Zambezi Belt, near the transition zone into the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt. The Complex is located just south of the Sanangoe Shear Zone where Mesozoic and Late Palaeozoic cover rocks obscure much of the region. Country rocks immediately in contact with the Tete Complex include amphibolitic gneiss, graphite-bearing marble, calcsilicate gneiss, muscovite and biotite schist and quartzite of the Chidue Group. The Tete Complex may have been intrusive into the Chidue Group, although there is evidence inferring tectonic emplacement. Those few contact exposures that exist are equivocal. Some of the rocks within the Tete Complex have been affected by metamorphism up to amphibolite grade, although large proportions of the rocks retain pristine magmatic mineralogy and texture. The Tete Complex contains mafic, ultramafic and anorthositic rocks, dolerite dykes and minor Fe-Ti oxide-rich rocks that occur as rubble. Pyroxenite occurs as thin (<1-2 m), cumulate layers within gabbroic rocks. Most exposed anorthositic rocks occur in the Nyangoma area in the eastern part of the Tete Complex. The anorthosites and leucotroctolites are massive, coarse grained (2-3 cm), and contain plagioclase (An47-An57) megacrysts up to 10 cm in length, interstitial olivine (Fo59-Fobs) and orthopyroxene (En59- En75, mean A1203 = 1.84 wt.%) rimmed by clinopyroxene (mean = Wo 46En38Fs i6), pyrite and Fe-Ti oxides. Secondary biotite, iddingsite, epidote and green spinet are present. The stable coexistence of olivine and plagioclase limits the depth of emplacement to <7-8 kbar, or <20- 25 km; a relatively shallow level of emplacement is favored by the generally fine grain size of the gabbroic and doleritic rocks. Compositions of coexisting plagioclase and mafic silicates (orthopyroxene and olivine) are similar to those of massif-type anorthosites. Previously unmapped meta-anorthosite occurs along the western and northern margin (within the Sanangoe Shear Zone) of the Tete Complex and has been metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. The rock contains plagioclase (An38-An39), with the more Ab-rich compositions related to the formation of garnet (mean = A1m67GrotsPYI6Sp2). Metamorphic orthopyroxene (Enso-En53), clinopyroxene (mean = Wo37En38Fs25), mizzonitic scapolite (Me63), amphibole, biotite and apatite are present. High Cl contents in amphibole, scapolite and biotite (e.g., up to 4.7 wt. % in amphibole), suggest that a Cl-rich metamorphic fluid infiltrated the western margin of the Tete Complex. Olivine melagabbro from the north-central part of the Tete Complex contains plagioclase (An70-An26), olivine (Fo82-Fos4) and clinopyroxene (mean = WanEn1Fs0.2, mean A1203 = 2.56 wt. %), with primitive compositions compared to those in Nyangoma anorthositic rocks and pyroxenites. Pyroxenites are modally dominated by clinopyroxene (mean = Wo46-48En36-39Fsi3-18) with accessory interstitial plagioclases (Ano-An45) and discrete and exsolved orthopyroxenes (En 56-En75). Clinopyroxenes with high A1203 contents up to 9 wt. % are similar to high-Al pyroxene megacrysts. One sample of pyroxenite contains orthopyroxene (En56-En60) and plagioclase (An40-An45) with more evolved compositions compared to those in Nyangoma anorthositic rocks and olivine melagabbro. Normal Fe4- and Na-enrichment trends accompanying fractionation from magmas that may be common to the Nyangoma anorthositic rocks, pyroxenites and olivine melagabbro, are associated with an increase in Al relative to Cr along a line of nearly constant relative Ti content. Gabbro contains olivine and plagioclase crystals that are commonly zoned, thus ranging widely in composition (Fool -Fos°, Anss-Ans2)• Clinopyroxene (mean = Wo36En47Fsi6) constitutes ca. 34 modal % of gabbro. New whole-rock (Nyangoma anorthosite and leucotroctolite) and mineral (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene) Sm-Nd isotopic data yields ages between 975 ±33 Ma and 1041 ±131 Ma. The igneous crystallization age of the anorthositic rocks is estimated at 1025 ±79 Ma (9-point whole-rock regression). Rb-Sr isotopic compositions for whole-rock samples reveal no meaningful age relationships. Initial Nd isotopic compositions (calculated at 1.0 Ga) correspond to E Nd values between +3.5 and +4.5 (mean = +4.1) with Is, = 0.70276 — 0.70288 (mean = 0.70282), both inferring magmatic derivation from a depleted mantle source, possibly with little or no contamination by Archaean crustal components. TDM model ages range between 1074 and 1280 Ma (mean = 1148 Ma). There is a striking similarity between the Tete Complex anorthosites and those of SW Madagascar in terms of Nd isotopic compositions and the nature of country rocks; in both regions the anorthosites were emplaced either magmatically or tectonically into shelf-type supracrustal metasediments (marbles, quartzites, graphitic schists, etc.). Anorthosites intruded similar country rocks in Draining Maud Land, eastern Antarctica. Although anorthosites from Mozambique and Madagascar share a common depleted mantle signature with little or no contamination by Archaean crustal components, a direct stratigraphic correlation between these two areas (and possibly eastern Antarctica), awaits further geological and geochronological data. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Geology - Mozambique en_US
dc.subject Ultrabasic rocks - Mozambique en_US
dc.subject Petrology - Mozambique en_US
dc.subject Mineralogical chemistry en_US
dc.subject Mineralogy - Mozambique en_US
dc.subject Geochronometry - Mozambique en_US
dc.subject Geological time en_US
dc.title Mafic, ultramafic and anorthositic rocks of the Tete complex, Mozambique : petrology, age and significance en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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