A comparative analysis of the causes for breaching the erga omnes obligation to prevent and prosecute gross human rights violations

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. H.A. Strydom en_US
dc.contributor.author Roux, Mispa
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-06T14:25:01Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-06T14:25:01Z
dc.date.issued 2012-11-06
dc.date.submitted 2012-09
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8116
dc.description LL.D. en_US
dc.description.abstract Millions of human lives have been affected by gross human rights violations since 1945. Genocide and crimes against humanity have been perpetrated repeatedly against civilians despite the vow after the Holocaust that such atrocities would “never again” occur. The Holocaust acts were not criminalised as “genocide” in the London Charter, but as “persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds” under the broader international crime of “crimes against humanity”. “Genocide” was criminalised on 9 December 1948 by the adoption of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide by the United Nations General Assembly. Two main obligations were imposed on signatory states by Article I of the Genocide Convention, namely to prevent the commission of the international crime of genocide, and the obligation to punish the perpetrators of such a crime. Both genocide and crimes against humanity form part of the “most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole”, which are also gross human rights violations. It is of interest to all states of the international community to prevent the commission of these gross human rights violations and to prosecute perpetrators. The prohibition of the international crimes of genocide and crimes against humanity is erga omnes in nature. The research objective of this doctoral thesis is to analyse the causes for the repeated failure of the international community to fulfil the erga omnes obligation to prevent and prosecute gross human rights violations. This endeavour is furthermore aimed at formulating recommendations that will enhance future compliance with the erga omnes obligation in accordance with the international legal developments that will form the subject matter of the thesis. The thesis consists of five parts. Part 1 is an introduction in which the research objective and aims of the thesis are explained and demarcated, as well as the issues focused upon. Core legal concepts, terms and notions explained in Part 1 include “gross human rightsviolations”, “erga omnes obligation”, “jus cogens norms”, “customary international law”, “states upon whom the erga omnes obligations to prevent and prosecute gross human rights violations are imposed”, “the obligation to prevent”, “the obligation to prosecute”, “state responsibility”, “individual criminal responsibility”, “state immunity”, and various other terms. Part 1 further explains the research methodology followed in the thesis and contains a brief overview of the parts and chapters. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Genocide en_US
dc.subject Human rights - International cooperation en_US
dc.subject International obligations
dc.subject International law and human rights
dc.subject Crimes against humanity
dc.title A comparative analysis of the causes for breaching the erga omnes obligation to prevent and prosecute gross human rights violations en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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